Alma 5-7: Conversion

Introduction

So far in the Mormon’s summary in the Book of Mormon, everything seems to hinge on the first few chapters of Mosiah when King Benjamin delivers an eloquent sermon urging listeners to “put off the natural man” and become children of God. He explains conversion, urges listeners to put off their ego and accept grace, repent of their sins and becoming a new person in Christ, moving those in attendance into an intense experience of conversion, “having no more desire to do evil, but to do good continually”. Deep conversion, according to Benjamin, moves a person into love, compassion and service toward others, having no concern for wealth or fame, but rather a devoted life towards establishing Zion, which means the elimination of poverty and violence.

Alma 5 is no different. Alma the younger, who in Chapter 4 gives up the judgment seat, realizing the deep struggles happening within the church. He begins Chapter 5 with a plea to remember their ancestral deliverance. As I look back into Mosiah, I find three narratives, but Alma focuses in this chapter on the one most relevant to his specific family line.

For reasons not totally explained, King Benjamin was able to get almost universal conversion through the power of his sermon, earned, likely, through the deep trust and love his people had in him based on years of faithful service for and with his people. Benjamin passes on the kingdom to his son Mosiah and the people experience a period of peace in Zarehemla, though the details are not well documented.

Alma’s father, Alma, a member of King Noah’s court in a community established by Zeniff near Lamanite land was complicit in Noah’s wicked rule. Alma becomes Abinidi’s sole documented convert, possibly because Abinidi spoke within no obvious authoritative position. Alma, by contrast, preaching the words of Abinidi, converts a number of people, who afterward flee into the wilderness when discovered by Noah’s people. Through inner dissent and a Lamanite invasion, the people kill Noah, but then succumb to the Lamanites. The rest of the people, led by Limhi convert after suffering the consequences of war and bondage to the Lamanites. Both groups, led by Alma and Limhi make it back to Zarahemla. Alma establishes a church in Zarehamla. “And thus, notwithstanding there being many churches they were all one church, yeah even the church of God; for there was nothing preached in all the churches except it were repentance and faith in God.” (Mosiah 25:22)

But something happens with the next generation, a generation that didn’t hear King Benjamin’s speech or weren’t part of Limhi’s or Alma’s deliverance from Lamanite bondage. Like every new generation, they had to find their own path into deep conversion. But growing up within a believing, faithful community, perhaps, they experienced nothing to really push them into faith in God. Prominent men like King Benjamin’s sons, Alma’s son Alma, Nehor and Amlici and many others, developed skepticism in the coming Christ, in the need for conversion and even in the existence of sin, believing as Nehor did, “that all mankind should be saved at the last day, and that they need not fear nor tremble, but that they might lift up their heads and rejoice; for the Lord had created all men, and had also redeemed all men; and, in the end, all men should have eternal life.” (Alma 1:4)

Through the prayers of faithful and concerned parents, an angel confronts Alma the younger and Mosiah’s four sons. This miraculous confrontation force them into a realization of the damage they have done as they have actively tried to tear down the church their parents have built. This event moves these men into deep, sincere conversion and a desire to repair the damage. Alma realizes his fairly to fully consider the painful lessons his father learned and God’s mercy in their ultimate deliverance.

Remember and Learn From History

Perhaps that’s why Alma the younger starts off his sermon in Alma 5 with a plea to remember.

And now behold, I say unto you, my brethren, you that belong to this church, have you sufficiently retained in aremembrance the captivity of your fathers? Yea, and have you sufficiently retained in remembrance his mercy and long-suffering towards them? And moreover, have ye sufficiently retained in remembrance that he has bdelivered their souls from hell? Behold, he changed their hearts; yea, he awakened them out of a deep sleep, and they awoke unto God. Behold, they were in the midst of darkness; nevertheless, their souls were illuminated by the light of the everlasting word; yea, they were encircled about by the abands of death, and the bchains of hell, and an everlasting destruction did await them.

Alma 5:6-7

The stark contrast separating the two sides of conversion seems to mirror both Alma’s experience and the experience of his father, but it doesn’t reflect the conversion experiences sparked by Benjamin’s speech, nor does it reflect my own experience. I can’t really describe my life by a clean before/after hinging on one memorable experience. There’s no obvious story in my history that I can point to in quite this way. I don’t think Joseph Smith’s life, the person who kickstarted Mormonism, reflects this either. I believe, though, we need to remember and learn from our history so that deep knowledge can be passed down, keeping each new generation from the pain of having to relive passed mistakes. It feels like we struggle to do this well.

The Nature of Conversion

Alma’s next set of question begins in verse 14:

And now behold, I ask of you, my brethren of the church, have ye spiritually been born of God? Have ye received his image in your countenances? Have ye experienced this mighty change in your hearts?  Do ye exercise faith in the redemption of him who created you? Do you look forward with an eye of faith, and view this mortal body raised in immortality, and this corruption raised in incorruption, to stand before God to be judged according to the deeds which have been done in the mortal body? I say unto you, can you imagine to yourselves that ye hear the voice of the Lord, saying unto you, in that day: Come unto me ye blessed, for behold, your works have been the works of righteousness upon the face of the earth?

Alma 5:14-16

Here, as in many other places in scripture, conversion is compared to birth. I think this is a nice metaphor but I think there is something literal about this point of view. Conversion as a birth experience brings us into a new life born into the Spirit, a child of God. This new life puts us on a life-long journey to become like God, walking a child, still immature at first but willing to grow. To learn how to care for and nurture others in an expansive way. We become a seed of Christ, another metaphor. His seed begins to sprout in us. We become new creatures, with a deeply changed heart. It doesn’t mean we’ll no longer make mistakes, but it means our life should be changed forever.

Alma’s Frustration or Why The Harsh Language?

After describing being spiritually born of God or the experience of a mighty change of heart, Alma describes the consequence of not doing so. The audience, he says later, is in a deep struggle.

18 Or otherwise, can ye imagine yourselves brought before the tribunal of God with your souls filled with guilt and remorse, having a remembrance of all your guilt, yea, a perfect aremembrance of all your wickedness, yea, a remembrance that ye have set at defiance the commandments of God?

Alma 5:18

It gets much worse later.

Yea, come unto me and bring forth works of righteousness, and ye shall not be hewn down and cast into the fire— For behold, the time is at hand that whosoever abringeth forth not good fruit, or whosoever doeth not the works of righteousness, the same have cause to wail and mourn.

Alma 5:35-36

and here:

And again I say unto you, the Spirit saith: Behold, the aax is laid at the root of the tree; therefore every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be bhewn down and cast into the fire, yea, a fire which cannot be consumed, even an unquenchable fire. Behold, and remember, the Holy One hath spoken it.

Alma 5:52

I get the rhetoric to an extent. We all believe or want to believe we’re on the right path. I think conversion requires deep humility. That without a mighty change of heart or a spiritual birth, we can never really get on that path. We’ll always fall short. He describes God’s ultimate rejection if we fail to experience conversion which is a rough way to think about God. Perhaps it’s more like just being outside the fold, not God’s rejection of us, just us not accepting the invitation to become part of God’s family. Maybe we don’t feel like we fit in because we’ve lived our lives outside of Godly concerns.

But Alma gets violent in these later verses. An ax laid at the root of the tree, to be cut down and hewn into the fire? Harsh. I don’t believe it in any literal sense. I have a hard time imagining in a figurative sense, other than those people who are bitter here, engulfed in pride, jealousy and hatred for others, not able to feel engulfing love with others close to them, I don’t know.. fire?

He shifts slightly to address those in his audience that probably have already experienced conversion but had begun to slide from earlier commitments.

Not Just Once, But Again and Again, For All

And now behold, I say unto you, my brethren, if ye have experienced a change of heart, and if ye have felt to sing the song of redeeming love, I would ask, can ye feel so now?

Mosiah 5:26

First of all, these phrases, experiencing “a mighty change of heart”, “singing the song of redeeming love”, can only approximate the experience of being born into the spirit, its mystical, revelatory, prophetic. It’s a loss of control, irrational, a step into the poetic. And this verse makes it clear, it’s an experience one should try to have throughout one’s life. I think, perhaps having conversion, being someone with deep love for others, it’s a change in how one is, not just in how one behaves. It’s the act of becoming, an identity, one tries never to move out of.

Life is not a resume to be filled up. Being on this earth is not about developing a list of achievements. Our primary task is to experience a conversion into grace. I use grace here as a replacement for Christ because I believe non-Christians have access to this as well. This born again experience is something all of us ought to experience, regardless of age.

And now I say unto you that this is the aorder after which I am called, yea, to preach unto my beloved brethren, yea, and every one that dwelleth in the land; yea, to preach unto all, both old and young, both bond and free; yea, I say unto you the aged, and also the middle aged, and the rising generation; yea, to cry unto them that they must repent and be bborn again.

Alma 5:49

Sin

Alma lingers on all the way a person can stumble. We tend to get caught up in ranking sin. And certainly, the degree to one strays away from having their heart deeply enveloped in love for others, the greater likelihood they’ll behave in a way that causes deep damage to others. But Alma, for reasons not fully explained, lingers on specific examples – pride (Alma 5:28), envy (Alma 5:29), making a mock of others (Alma 5:30), heaping upon persecution of others (Alma 5:30), turning your back upon the poor and needy (Alma 5:55).

Christian Identity

A better way of thinking of God as a being with infinite love, ever patient, ever merciful, ever beckoning upward. Consider, though, the specific way Alma describes this beckoning. It’s almost as if he’s tuned into a specific frequency and we have to be tuned into it to even hear it.

O ye workers of iniquity; ye that are apuffed up in the vain things of the world, ye that have professed to have known the ways of righteousness nevertheless have gone astray, as csheep having no dshepherd, notwithstanding a shepherd hath ecalled after you and is still calling after you, but ye will not fhearken unto his voice! Behold, I say unto you, that the good ashepherd doth call you; yea, and in his own name he doth call you, which is the name of Christ; and if ye will not bhearken unto the voice of the cgood shepherd, to the dname by which ye are called, behold, ye are not the sheep of the good shepherd.

Alma 5:37, 38

God calls us in his own name. The way to hear is to tune in our lives as if we already were born into the Spirit. We need to have the desire to be like Christ to become like Christ. We have to take upon his name to hear his voice. One way to express that desire is through the very public event of baptism.

Church

 For I say unto you that whatsoever is agood cometh from God, and whatsoever is bevil cometh from the devil.

Alma 5:40

The Book of Mormon lives in binaries and I think these binaries can be hopeful or harmful depending on how they get interpreted. In one sense having only two options really flattens lived reality. It’s hard to really categories people, their actions, their motivations into only one of two options.

But in some sense, talking about church in this specific way is hopeful. To think that anything that leads people to do good comes from God should and does include a lot of institutions, religious and otherwise. No one church can be all things for all people. Having a plurality makes the world rich and interesting. As they come together in interfaith cooperation, I believe we can do more good in the world than if we’re forever in interfaith competition over membership.

In Alma 6, Alma describes the response and gives a nice window into what church should be about.

Now I would that ye should understand that the word of God was liberal unto all, that none were deprived of the privilege of assembling themselves together to hear the word of God. Nevertheless the children of God were commanded that they should gather themselves together oft, and join in afasting and mighty prayer in behalf of the welfare of the souls of those who knew not God.

Alma 6:5-6

In Alma 7, Alma discovers the people in Gideon are doing well. The phrase in 7:3 that they continue to supplicate in God’s grace is another poetic phrases that’s really required because this sort of life in Christ is difficult to pin down precisely in language. Alma presumes in verse three that through grace, we can become blameless. I’m not sure this is instant. We sin in church, but if we do it while in Christ, we find a way toward healing and repair. Grace makes us blameless, lifting us out of our mistakes.

And behold, I have come having great hopes and much desire that I should find that ye had humbled yourselves before God, and that ye had continued in the supplicating of his grace, that I should find that ye were blameless before him, that I should find that ye were not in the awful dilemma that our brethren were in at Zarahemla. But blessed be the name of God, that he hath given me to know, yea, hath given unto me the exceedingly great joy of knowing that they are established again in the way of his righteousness.

Alma 7:3,4

Finally, in the conclusion in chapter 7, Alma describes church beautifully:

And now I would that ye should be ahumble, and be bsubmissive and gentle; easy to be entreated; full of patience and long-suffering; being temperate in all things; being diligent in keeping the commandments of God at all times; asking for whatsoever things ye stand in need, both spiritual and temporal; always returning thanks unto God for whatsoever things ye do receive. And see that ye have afaith, hope, and charity, and then ye will always abound in good works.

Alma 7:23, 24

It always comes back to this, faith, hope and charity, always abounding in good works – the outcomes of conversion.

Alma’s Final Testimony to the people in Zarahemla

In earlier chapters, we hear of Alma’s dramatic confrontation with the angel. The angelic intervention was an obvious turning point for Alma, forcing him to reckon with who he was and what he was doing, but more work was required. It’s interesting here, in the first full sermon presented from Alma, he doesn’t mention this experience at all and more interesting in his closing testimony he describes the work that went into his own conversion experience. It required fasting and prayer for many days – pure desire.

And this is not all. Do ye not suppose that I aknow of these things myself? Behold, I testify unto you that I do know that these things whereof I have spoken are true. And how do ye suppose that I know of their surety Behold, I say unto you they are made aknown unto me by the Holy Spirit of God. Behold, I have bfasted and prayed many days that I might know these things of myself. And now I do know of myself that they are true; for the Lord God hath made them manifest unto me by his Holy Spirit; and this is the spirit of crevelation which is in me. And moreover, I say unto you that it has thus been revealed unto me, that the words which have been spoken by our fathers are true, even so according to the spirit of prophecy which is in me, which is also by the manifestation of the Spirit of God.

Alma 5: 45-47

Christ

I say unto you, that I know of myself that whatsoever I shall say unto you, concerning that which is to come, is true; and I say unto you, that I know that Jesus Christ shall come, yea, the Son, the Only Begotten of the Father, full of grace, and mercy, and truth. And behold, it is he that cometh to take away the sins of the world, yea, the sins of every man who steadfastly believeth on his name.

Alma 5:48

As an aside, I think describing Christ as being full of grace and mercy and truth has a poetic feel, but I’m wondering if there’s a need to include both grace and mercy here as complementary but not exact descriptions. I don’t think we should be quick to pass over truth. I think being born into Christ requires a firm loyalty to truth no matter how inconvenient they may be.

What does it mean to fast and pray on behalf of the welfare of the souls of those who knew not God? What does it mean to know not God. That ye had continued in the supplicating of his grace – what does that mean?

Notice the sins Alma is concerned with in Alma 7:6 -> unbelief, pride, heart set upon riches, heart set upon the vain things of the world, idol worship, worship of the true and living God, repentance and faith for a better world to come.

Alma 7:8 – The limits of prophetic knowledge.

Alma 7:15 – ye are willing to repent of your sins and enter into a covenant with him to keep his comma

How is Alma so perceptive regarding the state of the souls in Gideon

Attributes of the converted soul: Alma 7:23 – Be humble, submissive, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of patience, long suffering, temperate, diligent, prayerful, grateful. Faith, hope, charity.

Book of Mormon – A Story of Conflict

Book of Mormon – A Story of Conflict

Disputes between Laman/Lamuel and Nephi

  • 1 Nephi 2:11 “for behold they did bmurmur in many things against their cfather, because he was a dvisionary man, and had led them out of the land of Jerusalem,”
  • 1 Nephi 2:12 And they did bmurmur because they cknew not the dealings of that God who had dcreated them.
  • 1 Nepth 2:13 Neither did they abelieve that Jerusalem, that great city, could be bdestroyed according to the words of the prophets. And they were like unto the Jews who were at Jerusalem, who sought to take away the life of my father.
  • 2 Neph 5:3 Yea, they did murmur against me, saying: Our younger brother thinks to arule over us; and we have had much trial because of him; wherefore, now let us slay him, that we may not be afflicted more because of his words. For behold, we will not have him to be our ruler; for it belongs unto us, who are the elder brethren, to brule over this people.

Disputes between Lamanites and Nephites

  • Mosiah 10:11Now, the Lamanites knew nothing concerning the Lord, nor the strength of the Lord, therefore they depended upon their own strength. Yet they were a strong people, as to the astrengthof men.
  • Mosiah 10:12 They were a awild, and ferocious, and a blood-thirsty people, believing in the btradition of their fathers, which is this—Believing that they were driven out of the land of Jerusalem because of the iniquities of their fathers, and that they were cwronged in the wilderness by their brethren, and they were also wronged while crossing the sea;
  • Mosiah 10:13 And again, that they were wronged while in the land of their afirst inheritance, after they had crossed the sea, and all this because that Nephi was more faithful in keeping the commandments of the Lord—therefore bhe was favored of the Lord, for the Lord heard his prayers and answered them, and he took the lead of their journey in the wilderness.
  • Mosiah 10:14 And his brethren were awroth with him because they bunderstood not the dealings of the Lord; they were also wroth with him upon the waters because they hardened their hearts against the Lord.
  • Mosiah 10:15 And again, they were awroth with him when they had arrived in the promised land, because they said that he had taken the bruling of the people out of their hands; and they sought to kill him.
  • Mosiah 10:16 And again, they were wroth with him because he departed into the wilderness as the Lord had commanded him, and took the arecords which were engraven on the plates of brass, for they said that he brobbed them.
  • Mosiah 10:17 And thus they have taught their children that they should hate them, and that they should murder them, and that they should rob and plunder them, and do all they could to destroy them; therefore they have an eternal hatred towards the children of Nephi.
  • Alma 3:11-

Disputes between Jacob and Sherem

  • Jacob 7:2 And it came to pass that he began to preach among the people, and to declare unto them that there should be ano Christ. And he preached many things which were flattering unto the people; and this he did that he might boverthrow the doctrine of Christ.
  • Jacob 7:And ye have led away much of this people that they pervert the right way of God, and akeep not the law of Moses which is the right way; and convert the law of Moses into the worship of a being which ye say shall come many hundred years hence. And now behold, I, Sherem, declare unto you that this is bblasphemy; for no man knoweth of such things; for he cannot ctellof things to come. And after this manner did Sherem contend against me.

Disputes between Abinidi and Noah

  • Mosiah 12:28 => And they said: We teach the law of Moses.
  • Mosiah 12:32 => And they answered and said that salvation did come by the law of Moses.

Disputes between Alma and the next generation

  • Mosiah 26:2 => They did not believe what had been said concerning the resurrection of the dead, neither did they believe concerning the coming of Christ.
  • Mosiah 27:8 => nevertheless, he became a very wicked and an bidolatrous man. And he was a man of many words, and did speak much cflattery to the people; therefore he dled many of the people to do after the manner of his einiquities.
  • Mosiah 27:30 I rejected my Redeemer, and denied that which had been spoken of by our fathers; but now that they may foresee that he will come, and that he remembereth every creature of his creating, he will make himself manifest unto aall.

Disputes between Alma the Younger and Nehor

Alma 1:3-4 And he had gone about among the people, preaching to them that which he atermed to be the word of God, bearing down bagainst the church; declaring unto the people that every priest and teacher ought to become cpopular; and they ought dnot to labor with their hands, but that they ought to be supported by the people. And he also testified unto the people that aall mankind should be saved at the last day, and that they bneed not fear nor tremble, but that they might lift up their heads and rejoice; for the Lord had ccreated all men, and had also dredeemed eall men; and, in the end, all men should have eternal life.

Alma 1:12 But Alma said unto him: Behold, this is the first time that apriestcraft has been introduced among this people. And behold, thou art not only guilty of priestcraft, but hast endeavored to enforce it by the sword; and were bpriestcraft to be enforced among this people it would prove their entire destruction.

Disputes with followers of Nehor

  • Alma 1:17: therefore they pretended to preach according to their belief; and now the law could have no power on any man for bhis belief.
  • Alma 1:22 Nevertheless, there were many among them who began to be proud, and began to contend warmly with their adversaries, even unto blows; yea, they would smite one another with their afists.
  • Alma 1:32 For those who did not belong to their church did indulge themselves in asorceries, and in bidolatry or cidleness, and in dbabblings, and in eenvyings and fstrife; wearing costly apparel; being glifted up in the pride of their own eyes; persecuting, lying, thieving, robbing, committing whoredoms, and murdering, and all manner of wickedness; nevertheless, the law was put in force upon all those who did transgress it, inasmuch as it was possible.

Disputes between Alma the Younger and Amlici/Amlicites

  • Alma 2:4 Therefore, if it were possible that Amlici should gain the voice of the people, he, being a wicked man, would adeprive them of their rights and privileges of the church; for it was his intent to destroy the church of God.
  • Alma 2:10 Now when Amlici was made king over them he commanded them that they should take up arms against their brethren; and this he did that he might subject them to him.
  • Alma 3:18 Now the Amlicites knew not that they were fulfilling the words of God when they began to mark themselves in their foreheads; nevertheless they had come out in open arebellionagainst God; therefore it was expedient that the curse should fall upon them.

Church of God

  • Mosiah 25:21 – 24 Therefore they did aassemble themselves together in different bodies, being called churches; every church having their priests and their teachers, and every priest preaching the word according as it was delivered to him by the mouth of Alma. And thus, notwithstanding there being many churches they were all one achurch, yea, even the church of God; for there was nothing preached in all the churches except it were repentance and faith in God. And now there were seven churches in the land of Zarahemla. And it came to pass that whosoever were desirous to take upon them the aname of Christ, or of God, they did join the churches of God; And they were called the apeople of God. And the Lord did pour out his bSpirit upon them, and they were blessed, and prospered in the land.
  • Mosiah 26:18 Yea, blessed is this people who are willing to bear my aname; for in my bname shall they be called; and they are mine.
  • Mosiah 26:22 For behold, athis is my bchurch; whosoever is cbaptized shall be baptized unto repentance. And whomsoever ye receive shall dbelieve in my name; and him will I freely eforgive.
  • Mosiah 27:25 Marvel not that all mankind, yea, men and women, all nations, kindreds, tongues and people, must be aborn again; yea, bborn of Godcchanged from their carnal and dfallen state, to a state of righteousness, being redeemed of God, becoming his esons and daughters;
  • Alma 1:26 And when the priests left their alabor to impart the word of God unto the people, the people also left their labors to hear the word of God. And when the priest had imparted unto them the word of God they all returned again diligently unto their labors; and the priest, not esteeming himself above his hearers, for the preacher was no better than the hearer, neither was the teacher any better than the learner; and thus they were all equal, and they did all labor, every man baccording to his strength.
  • Alma 1:27-29 And they did aimpart of their substance, every man according to that which he had, to the bpoor, and the needy, and the sick, and the afflicted; and they did not wear costly capparel, yet they were neat and comely. And thus they did establish the affairs of the church; and thus they began to have continual peace again, notwithstanding all their persecutions. And now, because of the steadiness of the church they began to be exceedingly arich, having abundance of all things whatsoever they stood in need—an abundance of flocks and herds, and fatlings of every kind, and also abundance of grain, and of gold, and of silver, and of precious things, and abundance of bsilk and fine-twined linen, and all manner of good homely ccloth.
  • Alma 4:13 Now this was a great cause for lamentations among the people, while others were abasing themselves, succoring those who stood in need of their succor, such as imparting their substance to the apoor and the needy, feeding the hungry, and suffering all manner of bafflictions, for Christ’s csake, who should come according to the spirit of prophecy;

Book of Mormon – Prophetic Transfer

  • Nephi (brother)- Jacob -(son) Enos – (son) Jarom – (son) Omni – (son) Amoron – (brother) – Chemish – (son) Abinadom – (son) Amaleki – (non-related) Benjamin -(son) Mosiah – (not related) Alma

Politics In the Book of Mormon: Mosiah 29- Alma 4

Key Verses & Themes

Dangers of a kingdom.

  • 29:1: A democratic election for kingship.
  • 29:5-6: for ye are desirous to have a king. Now I declare unto you that he to whom the kingdom doth rightly belong has declined, and will not take upon him the kingdom.”
  • 29:9 And if my son should turn again to his pride and vain things he would recall the things which he had said, and claim his right to the kingdom, which would cause him and also this people to commit much sin.
  • 29:13 “Therefore, if it were possible that you could have just men to be your kings, who would establish the laws of God, and judge this people according to his commandments, yea, if ye could have men for your kings who would do even as my father Benjamin did for this people—I say unto you, if this could always be the case then it would be expedient that ye should always have kings to rule over you.”
  • 29:17 “For behold, how much iniquity doth one wicked king cause to be committed, yea, and what great destruction!”
  • 29:21 “ye cannot dethrone an iniquitous king save it be through much contention, and the shedding of much blood….”
  • 29:26 “Now it is not common that the voice of the people desireth anything contrary to that which is right; but it is common for the lesser part of the people to desire that which is not right;

Benefits of a democracy

  • 29:10 “Do that which will make for the peace of this people.”
  • 29: 14: “to teach you the commandments of God, and to establish peace throughout the land, that there should be no wars nor contentions, no stealing, nor plundering.”
  • 29:28-29 “And now if ye have judges, and they do not judge you according to the law which has been given, ye can cause that they may be judged of a higher judge. If your higher judges do not judge righteous judgments, ye shall cause that a small number of your lower judges should be gathered together, and they shall judge your higher judges, according to the voice of the people.”
  • 29: 30 “That if these people commit sins and iniquities they shall be answered upon their own heads.”

Doctrines and Consequences of Nehor

  • Alma 1:3 – 4 “preaching to them that which he termed to be the word of God, bearing down against the church; declaring unto the people that every priest and teacher ought to become popular; and they ought not to labor with their hands, but that they ought to be supported by the people. And he also testified unto the people that all mankind should be saved at the last day, and they need not fear nor tremble, but that they might lift up their heads and rejoice; for the Lord had created all men, and had also redeemed all men, in the end all men should have eternal life.”
  • Alma 1:16: “Nevertheless this did not put an end to the spreading of priestcraft through the land; for there were many who loved the vain things of the world, and they went forth preaching false doctrines; and this they did for the sake of riches and honor”.
  • Alma 1:22: “Nevertheless, there were many among them who began to be proud, and began to contend warmly with their adversaries, even unto blows; they would smite one another with their fists.”
  • Alma 1:32: “For those who did not belong to their church did indulge in sorceries, and in idolatry or idleness, and in babblings, and in envyings and strife, wearing costly apparel;
  • Preaching for wealth and popularity skews natural incentives if those are the motives. There’s no room to change your mind. You’re kind of tied to your audience.

Questions

  • Why would the people be so insistent to have a king? Why is Mosiah’s oldest son the person to “whom the kingdom doth rightly belong.” How does this help explain the original schism and the Lamanite’s long-lasting grudge with the Nephites?
  • Is Mosiah right that democracy protects society against societal sin? The main argument he makes is that while the minority often wants that “which is not right”, it is “not common” for the majority to go against that “which is right”. Is this actually true? (thinking here of slavery, genocide, etc.).
  • It’s interesting that Mormon describes a society anxious to have “an equal chance throughout all the land” and a “willingness to answer for his own sins” and that “they were exceedingly rejoiced because of the liberty which had been granted unto them”, as if this weren’t already true, but reading about King Benjamin and Mosiah, it seems like they had these experiences were already given to them. I understand the risks they might lose this and maybe it’s a projection of that possibility but it seems like inevitably, democracy and accountability doesn’t end up saving them.
  • Nehor’s doctrine is similar to Noah’s in that they wanted the people to lift up their heads and rejoice that they will be saved as they are. (Salvation in their sins. Salvation by the law of Moses alone), but Nehor seems to take it further, dropping the law of Moses altogether, whereas other dissenters, including Alma the Younger’s dissension focused on Christ.
  • Sherem, Alma the Younger and Mosiah’s sons seem to have similarities but are decidedly dissimilar to Nehor (we don’t know actually exactly what Alma the younger or Mosiah’s sons preached). But in the cases of Sherem, Alma and Mosiah’s sons their conversion was triggered by a miraculous intervention and their testimonies healed their community.
  • Nehor had no such conversion and in fact enforced his words with the sword, killing Gideon who withstood his words.
  • What is priestcraft? What are modern day examples of those who preach for the sake of riches and honor?
  • There’s some interesting descriptions about the church – they were modest, their hearts were not on riches, they cared for the poor, but then they prospered far more than those who were seeking for riches. There’s something about wealth, that if you don’t seek for wealth, often you get it, especially if you’re goal is to use it for good.
  • What is this attraction for Amlici? Alma 2 describes the vulnerabilities of a democracy. You can vote away your freedom.

Sin and Redemption – Mosiah 25-28

Introduction

The Book of Mormon is an ambitious book in it’s scope, covering 1000+ years of history and multiple civilizations, while putting forward, as its primary purpose, a sophisticated theology. As a result, the narrative runs pretty quickly, weaving together the story with enough strategic pauses to make these theological points. Given the scope and reach of the book, it leaves plenty of room for personal interpretation, forcing the reader to fill in gaps, often with their own biases and predispositions. The narrative is delivered from the point of view of very human narrators. If the reader believes in the book’s historicity, the primary narrators are Nephi, Mormon and Moroni, if not, than Joseph Smith with possible assists from Oliver Cowdery and their contemporary influences tell the story. Either way, the book’s narrative comes through flawed filters, allowing for very human, though potentially, and I will try to make this case, inspired points of view.

I worry, then, that the standard interpretations of the Book of Mormon suggested by official church manuals, have played too heavy of a hand for the typical, faithful reader. As church members are encouraged to read the Book of Mormon daily, we aren’t encouraged, often enough, to read it carefully or critically. We don’t allow, nearly often enough, the book to take an active role in our lives. The characters in the book are portrayed superficially, not spending time on backstories or motivations that might paint the “evil characters” with greater sympathy and nuance or the “good characters” more critically. The casual reader may assume the book to be merely a training manual on how to be on the good side of that ledger. We need to go deeper and allow the book to challenge us in unexpected ways .

Background

With that introduction, let’s dive into Mosiah 25-28. Mosiah begins with a deep dive into King Benjamin’s sermon, but then moves back in time to describe the story of Zeniff’s attempt to build a society near the Lamanites. After establishing a successful community, things change abruptly when Zeniff’s wicked son Noah takes the reigns. Abinidi’s warning sermon to Noah and his priests that lead to Abinidi’s death. Alma, one of Noah’s priests, end up becoming Abinidi’s lone convert, but as he attempts to share Abinidi’s message, enough people are convinced to form a church. Forming that church gets them chased into the wilderness. Things don’t end up well, when Lamanite military conflict lead to Noah’s death and Lamanite control over the people. Both Alma’s people and Limhi’s people ultimately escape Lamanite bondage and control and find their way back to the people of Zerahemla under King Mosiah’s rule.

Brief Summary of Mosiah 25-28

Mosiah 25 describes the reunion, Alma’s call to organize churches among the people of Zerahemla. In Mosiah 26, we read about the rising generation that include both Mosiah’s and Alma’s children who reject the church’s teaching and work to persuade others out of belief. Mosiah 27 describes Alma’s and Mosiah’s conversion through an angelic rebuke. Finally, Mosiah 28 describes Mosiah’s sons desire to live among Lamanites in hopes of converting them to the church.

Through these chapters, church organization, conversion and rebellion contrasts the conflict between believers and unbelievers. In that tension, we can about the role sin plays for those inside and outside the church, what it means to live lives of faith, and why and how each of us must experience our own conversion.

The next three sections describe general themes and verses that specifically reference those themes.

Theme One: Sin

  • 25: 11 “And again, when they thought upon the Lamanites, who were their brethren, of their sinful and polluted state, they were filled with pain and anguish for the welfare of their souls.”
  • 26: 1 “They did not believe in the traditions of their fathers. They did not believe what had been said concerning the resurrection of the dead, neither did they believe concerning the coming of Christ.”
  • 26:2-4 “And now because of their unbelief they could not believe the word of God; and their hearts were hardened. And they would not be baptized; neither would they join the church. And they were a separate people as to their faith, and remained so ever after, even in their carnal and sinful state; for they would not call upon the Lord their God.”
  • 26: 32: “Now I say unto you, Go; and whosoever will not repent of his sins the same shall not be numbered among my people; and this shall be observed from this time forward.”
  • 27:8 : Alma “became a very wicked and an idolatrous man. And he was a man of many words, and did speak much flattery to the people; therefore he led many of the people to do after the manner of his iniquities.”
  • 27:14 “that thou mightest be brought to the knowledge of the truth; therefore, for this purpose have I come to convince thee of the power and authority of God, that the prayers of his servants might be answered according to their faith.”
  • 27:16 “Now I say unto thee: Go, and remember the captivity of thy fathers in the land of Helam, and in the land of Nephi; and remember how great things he has done for them; for they were in bondage, and he has delivered them.”
  • 27:30 “I rejected my Redeemer, and denied that which had been spoken of by our fathers; but now that they may foresee that he will come, and that he remembereth every creature of his creating, he will make himself manifest unto all.”
  • 28:2 “That perhaps they might bring them to the knowledge of the Lord their God, and convince them of the iniquity of their fathers; and that perhaps they might cure them of their hatred towards the Nephites, that they might also be brought to rejoice in the Lord their God, that they might become friendly to one another, and that there should be no more contentions in all the land which the Lord their God had given them.”

Theme Two: Church

  • 25:15 “And Alma did speak unto them, when they were assembled together in large bodies, and he went from one body to another, preaching unto them repentance and faith on the Lord.”
  • 25:18 “and as many as he did baptize did belong to the church of God; and this because of their belief on the words of Alma.”
  • 25:22 “And thus, notwithstanding there being many churches they were all one church, yea, even the church of God; for there was nothing preached in all the churches except it were repentance and faith in God.”
  • 25:23 “And it came to pass that whosoever were desirous to take upon them the name of Christ, or of God, they did join the churches of God; and they were called the people of God. And the Lord did pour out his Spirit upon them, and they were blessed, and prospered in the land.”
  • 26:15-18: “Blessed art thou, Alma, and blessed are they who were baptized in the waters of Mormon. Thou art blessed because of thy exceeding faith in the words alone of my servant Abinadi. And blessed are they because of their exceeding faith in the words alone which thou hast spoken unto them. And blessed art thou because thou hast established a church among this people; and they shall be established, and they shall be my people. Yea, blessed is this people who are willing to bear my name; for in my name shall they be called; and they are mine.”
  • 26: 22 “For behold, this is my church; whosoever is baptized shall be baptized unto repentance. And whomsoever ye receive shall believe in my name; and him will I freely forgive.”
  • 27: 5 “Yea, and all their priests and teachers should labor with their own hands for their support, in all cases save it were in sickness, or in much want; and doing these things, they did abound in the graceof God.”

Theme 3: Conversion

27:25 “And the Lord said unto me: Marvel not that all mankind, yea, men and women, all nations, kindreds, tongues and people, must be born again; yea, born of God, changed from their carnal and fallen state, to a state of righteousness, being redeemed of God, becoming his sons and daughters; And thus they become new creatures; and unless they do this, they can in no wise inherit the kingdom of God.”

Questions and Possible Answers

  • These verses are very vague on what what it means to sin, what sort of sins do these verses point to?
  • These verses describe a very active role within church membership. It comes down to repentance and faith in the Lord. But there are a few passages that connect belief, primarily belief the resurrection and the coming prophecies of Jesus Christ to this kind of life. How are belief and behavior connected?
  • The Book of Mormon constantly connects prosperity with righteousness. How are they connected in ways that don’t sound like the prosperity gospel?
  • Why is it important to remember the sacrifices, deliverances, and traditions passed down from our heritage or to consider the sins and mistakes of this heritage? Verses in these passages describe both.
  • What is church and how broadly can we define it?

Possible answers:

  • When the Book of Mormon describes sin and righteousness, I think it has much more to do with a willingness to be led by truth. If God is truth, belief in God is belief in truth. It’s a willingness to shed ideologies, personal stories, or anything else that keeps us from living in the world in its fullness.
  • Facing the world without deep conversion is unbearable. We must accept our own limitations, we must be willing to deal with pain, the pain we experience and the pain others feel, and in all the ways we’ve been complicit in it. We must accept our own failures. This kind of honest living in the world, requires grace. A willingness to walk in faith, live by grace, readily forgive others, readily repent and ask for forgiveness. It’s not easy. It requires deep conversion.
  • Conversion is a willingness to become children of God, to live and abide in spirit, to connect ourselves with others, to be merciful and to accept mercy. To be concerned with the welfare of both the group and of the individuals living within the group. To seek for both equality and peace and to love our enemies.
  • A willingness to live in deep truth, opens up the doors toward prosperity in ways that are equitable and sustainable. Conversion does not free us from suffering, but in the suffering, we learn and as we learn, we find connection with others and with the world in ways that allow us to live with more fullness, deeper understanding and in this way, with more abundance.

Broader application:

  • Deep conversion yields fruit, allowing us to face our heritage – it’s sins as well as its accomplishments – American slavery and native American genocide, but also the drive toward freedom, equality and prosperity. Or within the Mormon tradition, the deep and painful consequences of polygamy, exclusions of blacks from the priesthood, early Utah theocracy, Mountain Meadows Massacre, etc. But also the strong leadership of Brigham Young, the vision of Joseph Smith and the significant sacrifice of early Mormon pioneers who managed to build up the Utah community and eventually build a thriving, global church.
  • Expand the notion of church that extends beyond institutional boundaries. Recognize that there are many who live by word and deed in grace, forgiveness, and a vision for a better world. There are churches across the world, Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu and Buddhist that share in these goals. We should find common cause. Deep conversion happens across institutional boundaries. We should support each other in the core goal of broad conversion and help as many people find their way to it through whatever cultural and religious contexts works for them.

Why do I need to learn this crap anyway?

My daughter was stuck on a particularly challenge mathematical proof. She felt like she was close, but couldn’t quite push it further to resolution. The problem was to show that:

(1+cot^2y)(cos(2y) + 1) = 2cot^2y

She had a sheet of identities she could use as reference. Not really knowing how to get there from here, she played around with identities that seemed like steps in the right direction only to hit a roadblock. Stooping over her shoulder, I tried to play around with it and struggled.

I finally had to get my own sheet of paper so I could play around with it on my terms – my mind just works better with pen on paper. I love problems like this.

Not that there’s any immediate application for it in my life currently. At one point I worked on developing software for modems in military radios and there is, believe it or not, application for this in the real world. Cosines and sines are ways to model waves mathematically. Waves are all over the natural world – oscillating impulses of energy propagating through space. It all begins with a unit circle – a circle with a radius equal to one. To represent a position on that circle in terms of the angle, cosine represents the value of the x position,  sine gives the y-position. Rotating around the circle at a certain speed, the x and y position oscillates between one and negative one in a periodic fashion that looks a wave.  The frequency of the wave is the speed of the rotation. The mathematics is deeply embedded in my brain from years of calculus starting in high school extending deep into an Electrical Engineering undergraduate degree and as I said, practical application when I coded modem software for military radios not too long after graduation.

Anyway, it turns out the solution to the proof is fairly straightforward but requires a bit of pattern recognition, searching for steps that get you ever closer to the goal, the steps are as follows:

Step 1: (1+cot^2)(2-2sin^y) => using the idenity cos2y = 1-2sin^y, and then adding the 1’s together.

Step 2: 2-2sin^2y + 2cot^2y – 2sin^2ycot^2 => multiplying everything out.

Step 3: 2-2sin^2y -2sin^2(cos^2y/sin^2y) + 2cot^2y => convert cot^2y to cos^2y/sin^2y

Step 4: 2-2(sin^2y + cos^2y) + 2cot^2y => cancel out the sin^2y and factor out the 2.

Step 5: 2-2 + 2cot^2y => sin^2y + cos^2y = 1, pythagorean theorem,

Proof: 2cot^2y = 2cot^2

There’s a certain amount of endorphin kick solving this, but it’s also frustrating to get stuck on it. Frustrating and demoralizing. My daughter gets stuck on these problems, more often than not. And I know having your parent help you sucks for teenagers. Everyone’s brains are wired differently. Training has something to do with it as well – nature vs. nurture.

During the pandemic, with schools basically closed, I’m trying to get my son to take a music theory course with me on coursera. The video we watched today, we had to recognize chords and identify whether they were tonic or dominant. I got the basic idea, but I had trouble recognizing them by ear. My son could hear it far better than me – he’s better trained musically. Or maybe he has musical genes (from my wife) I just don’t have.

I don’t know.

Showing my daughter the proof she screamed, “why do I have to know this stuff anyway”. I don’t have good answers for it. It’s a basic existential question on the utility of school generally. Everyone understands the basic utility of math through algebra, the basic utility of reading comprehension and the importance of learning to write well. But school, especially a college prep school, pushes students far past this – reading books not especially enjoyable to read, especially for a young person without life experience, then being forced to write something enlightening about this book they could barely get through. Why do we teach writing in this precise way?

The problem with these question though is I have no idea. She’s 17. Nobody really knows what knowledge will end up being useful for her down the line. Most of it will largely not be. But I think there’s something essential about learning as much of the world as we possibly can, so we can make sense of it, recognize our place in it, and then perhaps have a shot to make some small contribution within it.

Steve Jobs took calligraphy in school for the fun of it. He then later revolutionized fonts on apple computers, largely because of this training he happened upon. Likely nothing that extraordinary will come out of any of this. Sometimes it’s just fun to use our brains – or not.

I don’t know.

Come Follow Me – James

Introduction

I come to the book of James with some interesting preconceptions – it’s the works side of the faith vs. works debate I’ve had many times in my life, “Faith without works is dead (James 2:17)”, “Shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works. (James 2:18)” and that “by works a man is justified, and not by faith only” (James 2:24). All of which seems to be in direct tension with Paul, who said “Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ.” (Romans 5;1) and through the law am dead to the law, that I might live unto God  (Galatians 2:19).

For Mormons, James takes on a special importance. Every missionary memorizes the verse in James 1:5, that moved Joseph Smith to seek answers to prayers in the woods in an event that has become foundational to kickstart our religious movement that turned into a worldwide religion. “If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God.” (James 1:5).

What I was surprised to learn in just a little research is how much of James is overlooked or disregarded. Martin Luther called James “an epistle of straw” that “has nothing of the nature of the gospel about it”. And it seems James isn’t really used frequently as source material for many protestant faiths. And that with the exception of a few verses quoted above, even my own faith often neglects much of James.

This may partially be because James is so short. And Mormons (and likely most religions) tend to narrow the vast Biblical record down to key verses.  But I think there is a lot to be learned from James. Marcus Borg in his introduction to James from his book Evolution of the Word: The New Testament in the Order the Books Were Written, said:

Finally, we note that James echoes more sayings of Jesus than any document in the New Testament other than the gospels themselves. Its fiery passion reflets the passion of Jesus himself.

A careful reading of James brings this out which I will get to but I think the question of authorship is interesting.

Authorship

According to Borg, most scholars don’t believe the author of James was actually the brother of Jesus mostly because the language and grammar of the original Greek is “quite sophisticated”, more sophisticated than a brother of Jesus born into a peasant class would have been capable of. Aramaic being the more likely spoken language.

But nobody knows for sure. The letter doesn’t clarify, James was a common name at the time. But the author must have been intimately familiar with the teachings of Jesus. And James the brother of Jesus and earliest Christian leader would credibly have had the ideas found in James.

James mirrors much of Jesus’ provocations. For me, based on this alone, it feels correct that its author was an intimate, first-hand witness of Jesus’ life and teachings.

His Statements on Wealth

The beginning of James chapter two is worth contemplation. In verses 2-4, he lays out a hypothetical, one I’m positive we’ve all experienced in one way or another. Imagine being at church, and a rich, well put together, educated family enters first, followed by a more ragged, more obviously poor family. Which one gets preferential treatment?

Ward leaders almost invariably think the rich family would be an asset in the ward, generous givers of time and money, competent, capable, willing to serve in responsible positions. Their hearts sink a little when the poor family enters – another burden on the ward likely already burdened.

Consider what James says however in chapter two:

Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?

But ye have despised the poor. Do not rich men oppress you, and draw you before the judgment seats?

Christianity, when really considered, is radical. Our God was born in poverty and died ignominiously. His ministry was short. He spent his time with the poor, the sinners, the sick and when he did speak harsh words, he always punched up – reserving the greatest condemnation for the elite in power. When he spoke, he often spoke in paradox, turning the world upside down – to find your life, you need to lose it, the first shall be last. His ministry was to raise up the weak and bring down the strong. Not the best message perhaps to grow an institution.

James hits on similar themes, in chapter five:

Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are motheaten.

Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days.

Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.

Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter.

What is James saying here? I think the answer can found in the first chapter:

Let the brother of low degree rejoice in that he is exalted:

10 But the rich, in that he is made low: because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away.

11 For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways.

James reminds us how short, fragile and ephemeral our lives really are. We are just like the flower that is beautiful and vibrant for a moment but then fades away in the sun. We can’t live life like this is all we have. If we find prosperity, we need to use these resources to make room for those with less. Our hearts need to be wider and deeper then our own self-interest and much more focused on eternal concerns.

What Does James Mean by Works

Paul’s primary focus over and over again was that the law by itself brings death, but faith and grace brings life. What kind of life does it bring? And what exactly did Paul mean by the law? His focus was on Jewish law, circumcision often, but the entire law of Moses – a religious life purely focused on a certain kind of living, where righteous works became an end in itself.

This is not the type of work James describes. Let’s dig into it.

James 1: 22-25:

22 But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves.

23 For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass:

24 For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was.

25 But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed.

What does this mean? I think it means hearing the word and then allowing it to sink deep within one’s heart, so that we are forever changed, becoming its living embodiment. It’s works filled with love, so that as we walk away from the mirror, we don’t forget, the word remains.

More directly James 2:15-16

15 If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food,

16 And one of you say unto them, Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit?

and James 1:27:

27 Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their afflictionand to keep himself unspotted from the world.

What concerns James was not circumcision or particular dietary requirements. Ratherm, he was concerned with love and care – that our faith, grace and mercy moves us toward kindness, compassion, generosity, that it moves us away from ourselves toward each other.

Final Thoughts

James has some beautiful and important passages on good speech, warnings against envying and strife. It’s as if he foresaw social media and the kind of platform that would pin us against each other.

James 3:17 is beautiful in this regard:

17 But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.

Without partiality – non-partisan, non-ideological. Full of mercy, easy to be entreated, gentle. I think it also means, we should listen more and speak less – I think this is great advice given there are so many people to learn from and listen to. We should listen and learn from everyone we come in contact with, which will by design, limit how much we’re able to speak.

We should read ten times as much as we write. This used to be easy, but in the world of social media, many of us are writing ten times more than we read. There is wisdom out there, absorb that wisdom, synthesize it, make it our own, then respond to it. We need to respond and interact not talk over, interrupt and insult.

I think there is some real wisdom in this very short letter. Wisdom in its provocations. James is difficult, but important.

 

My Thoughts on the (New) Temple Recommend Questions

Introduction

In my late 20’s, thinking it may be my last chance for such an adventure, I spent three and a half weeks in New Dehli, India on a volunteer vacation. The organization that organized the trip tried their best to try to leverage my computer and math skills to help the very poor. For me, the trip was my way of experiencing a country and culture as different from my own as I could possibly experience. Even here, however, I was surprised to discover a small Mormon branch and decided to attend. I don’t remember much of that service, but I do remember the branch president pulling out his temple recommend as he testified of the importance of having a current recommend even if actually attending a temple was not viable. Even on the opposite side of the world, in the midst of a country with a culture and history so different from my own, so very far from any then existing temple, I was surprised to hear this type of emphasis on the temple recommend.

Temples for the LDS church are where we perform marriage sealing ordinances for the living and other ordinances, including baptisms, for the dead. We consider these buildings our most sacred places. Our church values temples so much so that Joseph Smith, early in church history, while facing persecution and deep poverty, sacrificed nearly everything to build or attempt to build them everywhere they spent any amount of time in, including Kirtland, Nauvoo, all over Utah and increasingly, now, all over the world, including notably to my story, India.

Temples are not public spaces. On the contrary, even lifelong members of the church have to qualify to enter.  To qualify requires sitting through two interviews with ecclesiastical leaders, the first with either the bishop or one of his counselors, the second with one of the stake president’s counselors. The bishop leads the congregation the member attends, the stake president presides over a group of congregations.

Both leaders must ask the exact same set of questions and in order to qualify, the individual must answer all the questions correctly, twice.

The stakes for a temple recommend can be pretty high, most especially because most LDS weddings happen there. When two active, faithful Mormons marry outside the temple, they advertise to everyone that they probably did something serious enough to keep them out, and most people assume that something was sex. In that sense, it can be a big, red scarlet letter. If a family member is unable to secure a temple recommend in time for a temple wedding of someone close to them, they have to wait outside so they can be there for the family pictures traditionally done on temple grounds. It’s another kind of scarlet letter, just not as big. I was married in the temple. Some of the closest people in my life couldn’t participate in what has been the most important event in my life – and I felt that sense of loss, experiencing that important event while loved ones waited outside.

The temple recommend, then, can be a kind of a sorting hat. If you have one, you’re an exclusive insider. If not, your outside the club and it’s at weddings where this sorting is made public.

Fortunately, President Nelson softened the blow a bit. Now, if a couple really wants everyone, including all of the non-believers, the fornicators, the smokers, the non tithe payers, and apostates in attendance (more about all of this later), they can have the all-inclusive wedding without having to wait an entire year to eventually seal it in the temple.

Marriage sealings are by far the most important social reasons to carry the temple recommend but there are other obvious benefits as well. Many of the more important positions at all levels of the church require a temple recommend. And the temple really is a sacred, holy place. Participating in the ceremonies, rituals and ordinances, dressed all in white, leaving all of your devices locked away, taking on the name of a deceased person places that person out of time and into eternity. Every time I’ve experienced the temple, I feel a little more whole.

The Questions

With all of that as prequel, let’s get into the actual questions. What do the changes to the questions mean for the average member of the church. I think this summary explains the intent of the changes fairly well. This quote in particular indicates the intent for the changes are to clarify rather than modify entrance qualifications.

Temple recommend questions have been periodically clarified or adjusted to meet the needs and circumstances of God’s children. These current updates clarify, but do not change, worthiness requirements to enter the temple.

There are 15 questions but some of the questions have parts. Rather than dealing with each question individually, I’m going to group them by category.

One last thing before I jump in – amazingly, these are binary, yes/no questions. You know, the kind of question you should never ask your teenager. The ultimate goal when entering a temple recommend interview is to determine whether or not the person qualifies to enter. That determination can and should be made ahead of time. The questions are known, the person should prepare ahead and as much as possible wrestle through to answers. These questions can trigger bigger conversations with the leader in the interview and for some people that can be valuable, but the goal will always be to get to either a yes or no. Answering a single question incorrectly can mean not receiving the recommend. Only perfect scores count.

The Have Questions:

Faith in the Godhead: Do you have faith in and a testimony of God, the Eternal Father; His Son, Jesus Christ; and the Holy Ghost?

Testimony of the Atonement: Do you have a testimony of the Atonement of Jesus Christ and of His role as your Savior and Redeemer?

Testimony of the Restoration: Do you have a testimony of the Restoration of the gospel of Jesus Christ?

I’ve lived with these questions for decades now. I’ve always treated these in particular gimmes. But as I’ve walked deeper into my faith journey, they have opened up in ways that have forced me to really confront their complexity. Depending how I interpret testimony and faith, I could honestly answer both yes and no to all three of these questions. I could write out fully flushed out reasons why for both answers. These are heavy words, testimony and faith, with complex, confusing definitions. We can treat them superficially or we can dig into them.

What does it even mean to possess a faith in God, or God’s son. Given that Christians believe Jesus, an historical figure, was born from a virgin mother, lived a perfect, sinless life, voluntarily allowed himself to be crucified for the sins of the world and in three days rose from the grave, not just a man but a God. Having faith in such unbelievable, unverifiable specifics doesn’t make complete sense to me. What does it mean to have faith in the Holy Ghost, a spirit guide for all who live righteously. What does it mean to have faith in all three?

That last of the faith questions is a little odd if taken too literally. How does one have faith in an historical event, one that either happened or didn’t? I don’t think that’s possible (same is true for a literal, physical resurrection by the way). But if the restoration really is something with possibility and currency in our own lives right now and not something that happened 200 years ago, and if we’re all invited to participate in it, then perhaps having faith in the restoration means being willing to devote our lives to something that requires our participation. Saying yes means being committed to it, or at least not sleeping through it. Same, really with God, grace, and the spirit. The answer relates to their reality now in the ways we choose to experience life.

The interview demands an answer, but these questions carry a lot of weight.

The Sustain Questions:

There are two questions here:

  • Do you sustain the members of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles as prophets, seers, and revelators?
  • Do you sustain the other General Authorities and local leaders of the Church?

I think they could more practically be asked in this way:

  • Do I support the good people running this church? More specifically, will I remain in faithful participation even when I don’t disagree with some of the policies and procedures passed down to me through the organization? Will I at least pay attention to what they are trying to teach me? I don’t think sustain means agree with. For the top leaders of the church, I’m not sure sustain practically means support. There is only so much I can do for them personally hundreds of miles away, part of a global organization with millions of members.
  • Do I support my local leaders, most of whom I know personally and am well aware of their weaknesses and mistakes? Am I willing to pray for them and help them succeed sometimes, maybe even oftentimes, despite their own efforts otherwise?

It’s hard to sustain well, but a yes answer to these questions is a commitment to try.

The Strive Questions:

Chastity: Do you strive for moral cleanliness in your thoughts and behavior?

Sabbath Day: Do you strive to keep the Sabbath day holy, both at home and at church; attend your meetings; prepare for and worthily partake of the sacrament; and live your life in harmony with the laws and commandments of the gospel?

Honesty: Do you strive to be honest in all that you do?

There are now three questions with the word “strive” when previously there was just one. I appreciate the word strive here because that feels like all we can do. No one is perfectly honest or perfectly clean or perfectly keeps the sabbath day holy or perfect in anything.

I don’t believe for any of these questions, perfection is expected. Just strong, fervent attempts – I strive for Sabbath holiness, I strive to keep my thoughts and behaviors filled with a deep love and concern for others.

See my post on the celestial glory for a hint why I word it this way – the short answer is that I think sex is fundamentally a relationally, loving, intimate act and one that should be done only with a committed by covenant partner, anything less than that falls short of the ideal. But having said that, we all have to deal with hormones and at various degrees and at different times of our lives, hormones may be harder to control. Sometimes our thoughts betray our more noble selves. Even Jimmy Carter, famously, admitted as much.

Adam Miller describes it this way in his phenomenal book, Letter’s to a Young Mormon:

Chastity is not a kind of perfection. You may have arrived in this world innocent, but chastity is some-thing more. Chastity is not something you are born with and then break or lose, it is something that is made. It is something that must, with years of patient and compassionate effort, be cultivated and grown and gathered and sealed.

Miller, Adam S.. Letters to a Young Mormon . Neal A. Maxwell Institute. Kindle Edition.

Lifestyle Questions:

Chastity again: Do you obey the law of chastity?

Tithing: Are you a full-tithe payer?

Word of Wisdom: Do you understand and obey the Word of Wisdom?

Garments: Do you keep the covenants that you made in the temple, including wearing the temple garment as instructed in the endowment?

Child Obligations: Do you have any financial or other obligations to a former spouse or to children? If yes, are you current in meeting those obligations?

I think the spirit of these questions is to determine whether the person clears the minimum bar required to enter the temple. The word of wisdom question can be a barrier of entry for someone who chooses to indulge in alcohol, tobacco, or more baffling, coffee or tea. This could be tough for someone mired in an addiction. Or it could be, especially with coffee and tea, simply a way to signal a personal commitment to the church. Some legimitaly argue that keeping someone struggling with addiction out of the temple removes a useful tool that could help them heal. I don’t have data to back this up, but for those who step away from the temple, drinking coffee might be a good way to signal that intention, and then when an out and proud coffee drinker waits outside for a temple wedding, everyone expects it.

The chastity question is even more complicated. First, it covers a huge range of behaviors. Some have argued that sexual sin (without any specificity included) stands next to murder in seriousness and I think that’s right but only at the extreme edges. For conservative churches, any sexual activity outside of marriage is sin, but that includes both the relatively innocent sexual act between a couple weeks before their wedding day as well as violent sexual assault and everything else in between. As it stands now, any and all misdeeds within that range of behavior will keep you out of the temple, the only question, typically, is for how long.

I have some sympathy for the church’s position here. Sexual activity is fraught. My experience with it is limited but the science resonates – sexual experience deepens feelings of love and attachment with a partner. Doing this too casually can be emotionally brutal and can potentially cross lines into criminal behavior. But honestly, religion sucks at sex, and equally as honestly, so does everyone else.

For each of these questions, the person will have to inspect their own lives to determine whether or not they meet the criteria because the standards remain fairly vague. Some church leaders will take a harder-line than others. Everyone has a different interpretation of what it means to pay a full tithe for example. But like all of the questions, they really just want a yes or no. The individual can seek guidance or advice, but that guidance often varies from bishop to bishop and can feel a bit like playing leadership roulette.

I have no idea why the lifestyle questions are limited to these. Murder, physical or emotional abuse, violence of any kind in fact and criminal activity does not even make the list. Perhaps that is why we have the next category.

The Catch-All Questions:

Follow the Teachings of the Church: Do you follow the teachings of the Church of Jesus Christ in your private and public behavior with members of your family and others?

Are you a believer: Do you support or promote any teachings, practices, or doctrine contrary to those of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints?

Serious sins: Are there serious sins in your life that need to be resolved with priesthood authorities as part of your repentance?

Your own worthiness assessment: Do you consider yourself worthy to enter the Lord’s house and participate in temple ordinances?

First of all, I’m pretty sure you can’t hold a temple recommend in prison – which kind of sucks for the poor and minority populations who end up in prison at disproportionate rates and therefore we effectively end up piggybacking temple recommends to a not-so-just justice system.

Pushing that to the side, the problem with these questions generally and especially these vague catch-all questions is that they can disproportionately punish the most sensitive and conscientious among us.

In the most recently published podcast by This American Life, entitled Anatomy of Doubt, they describe an incident where a rape victim keeps changing her story to the police, even admitting at certain times, she wasn’t raped at all and had made the whole thing up. But of course she had been raped, the perpetrator was eventually caught and the evidence of the rape corroborated her initial accounts. Trauma is messy. We doubt ourselves as a matter of course. Many of us walk through our lives worried we’re not measuring up. If someone were to ask us if we are worthy, answering no feels like for many the most honest response.

Imagine, for example, a recent victim of rape, sitting in a bishop’s temple recommend interview having to answer the chastity question? But even more broadly, we all deal with our own regrets and we’re typically our own worst critics. Jordan Peterson, in a recent podcast, argued that the constitutional principle of “innocent until proven guilty” protects us not just from false accusations but also from ourselves. He cautions against too quick admissions of guilt when the stakes are high.

In more intimate and trusting relationships, we should admit to guilt quickly and generously because we’re doing dumb stuff all the time. Being quick to apologize and quick to forgive can make these relationships endure through difficult times.

But in high stakes situations, and a temple recommend interview I think counts here, we should error on the side of generosity. If we truly are struggling with something difficult, perhaps we should work it out first with someone professionally trained to help navigate us through difficult internal terrain.

The “are you a believer question” is particular fraught and is a significant change from the older question.  Like many of the other questions, it’s broad and subject to interpretation. A person may advocate for a political position that another could claim runs counter to church’s doctrine of love and compassion.  LGTBQ activism may be scrutinized. Concern for 1:1 bishop interviews with children could be seen as a violation of this question. Any concern, if publicly expressed could be reasons to answer no. This essay right now may be in violation.

An unintended and unfortunate consequence could be that some may become worried out of thinking for themselves or being afraid to express themselves in public conversation. I hope not.

If we engage sincerely, with authenticity and real concern, without a desire to destroy or tear down, I think we should feel confident in a no answer here.

In Summary

Most active, lifelong members of the church, organize their lives around these core questions. They get into a habit of expressing fervent testimony of the basic gospel principles in monthly testimony meetings and in other venues. They carefully avoid substances specifically mentioned in the word of wisdom even as they might indulge in unhealthy eating and drinking habits outside of the banned list. They marry young and stay committed in their marriage. They never question and always try to obey. Being careful to stay within bounds, they secure the recommend and enjoy the benefits of being a lifelong temple recommend holder.

Others, though, who for one reason or another struggle with one or more of these questions often can be driven right out of the church. If they can’t participate fully why participate at all?

I’m not sure the exact intention of these questions. I’m not sure they are living up to the purposes they are trying to serve. But I think they have potential. They provide an opportunity for deep self-assessment, shadow work, and further faith exploration. Doing the work these questions invite us into, I believe can provide the framework for inner sanctification and a journey of holy goodness.

Perhaps there are better questions. There’s nothing on the list about love, service or sacrifice, not directly anyway. Perhaps we can add our own questions to the list as we do this inner work. Having to hear these questions out-loud twice in a row from an ecclesiastical leader and responding out loud with either a yes or no can be the motivation for necessary, regular inner work that should continue as we use that recommend to attend the temple regularly.

Ultimately,  if we desire to attend the temple, we should be as generous to ourselves as possible. Desire, a willingness to strive, a commitment to participate I think is at the heart of all of these questions. If we are willing, if we desire, we are “called to the work“, and regular temple attendance can be a sanctifying assist in our regular engagement to assist and bless others.

My Thoughts on the Mormon church’s New Youth Program

The Old Youth Program

About one year ago, my church announced the decision to drop boy scouts and personal progress. Listening to this news, I breathed a sigh of relief only wishing this news had come earlier. My son was about 13 at the time and technically could have had his eagle by then. Realistically, most boys squeeze in their Eagle project right before the age deadline at 18 years old (I have no data to back this up, just anecdotal experience), and my son was basically on track to do this if he wanted to do it, but with this announcement, he had a year to finish up or find another scout troop to finish.

Honestly, though, scouts within the church is usually at best half-baked. The leaders have been called into these positions from within the congregation, mostly untrained, often without their own boys in the program, many not all that far removed from being youths themselves. They are busy with their own lives. And the scouting program is crazy complicated with complicated requirements for badges and advancements. When done well, the program can be enormously valuable, but I’ve never seen it done well, mostly I’ve seen it done barely at all.

And that was my son’s basic experience. Even though he attended scout camps, many of the campouts, and the weekly activities, he did not advance. I complained about this sad fact and he eventually progressed to his Star and probably could have gotten Life, but not long after the announcement, we dropped it. The program was barely operating and my son basically lost whatever interest I tried to inject into him.

Something New

The church youth program has been on a holding pattern ever since with promises that a new program would soon replace it. That new program was introduced last Sunday, although I expect more details are still to be forthcoming.

Based on what I know right now, they pared down the youth program so much I’m not sure it’s worthy even to be called a program at all. Perhaps more meat is still to come, but it basically boils down to the youth working out goals along the four quadrants modelled after Jesus’ youth life described in Luke 2:52.

And Jesus aincreased in bwisdom and stature, and in cfavour with God and man.

Following Jesus’ example, each youth should set intellectual, physical, social and spiritual goals and then the youth program should organize to assist the youth accomplish these goals. In other words, just do whatever you want but make sure the youth have some voice in it, and make sure the activities enrich and develop each youth in ways that are relevant.

This all sounds great. I believe this “program” has the same goals previous programs did, but without the prescriptions, awards, and complications. But it also removes the oversight, the progress tracking and the infrastructure. It’s easy to see how this could devolve into just playing basketball every week which looked… awfully similar to my own youth experience – I ended up playing a lot of basketball.

These youth program changes, though, got me thinking about what precisely do I want from my church’s youth program. What I want may be different than what my children want and likely different than what other parents may want or need from church programs. But my desires are quite modest.

What I Want From a Youth Program

Deep friendships with others on the same spiritual path, with the same spiritual goals, within the same spiritual framework

I’m not sure whether or not my children will end up staying within Mormonism, statistically, it’s likely that at least half of my kids will leave.. But I want my kids to develop a spiritual life, a faith in God and a knowledge of their religious heritage. Mormonism has been my gift to them, I’d appreciate it if they would accepted the gifts within it even as they struggle with the challenges that come along with it as well.

The other day, one of my son’s friends shared dinner with us. He talked about how he had set goals to go on a mission, get married and have a family of his own. Milestones deeply important within Mormonism. Within the rigors of a college prep academic life and in secular culture writ large, our society has emphasized career over everything else. Our economy and associated markers for success have focused primarily on economic status, income and career. Societally speaking, we’ve run into some serious ditches along the way. I think our religious marginalization has something to do with some of the dysfunction we’re currently experiencing.

I think the church has been long set up to provide the contextual framework for deep youth friendships. Growing up, many of my closest friends were Mormon. Mid-week activities, Sunday meetings, weekend adventures, just getting youth to interact together regularly, that’s really all you need for friendships to blossom. Time has always been a big part of Mormonism.

Spiritual Mentors

Teenagers have a love/hate relationship with their parents. Raising kids takes a village. Being surrounded by caring adults, providing a lot of different kinds of role models, but each of them vetted for their deep commitment to love, service, kindness and spiritual connection. My wife and I have all kinds of gaps. Having other adults in my kids lives is a gift.

My kids are already involved in a lot of activities. They have teachers, coaches and advisors providing mentoring and support along academic, athletic and artistic dimensions. They need spiritual guides as well. People to model deep prayer, meditation, knowledge of the scriptures.

Mormonism has seminary that provides much of this, but it’s early and teenagers need more sleep. I wish seminary could be reduced to a 15 minute morning devotional, share a scripture and a thought, and then gather together to pray and be still for a moment of silent contemplation. I’m not sure how this would work for teenagers, but I think in the long run, this kind of spiritual practice minutes before the beginning of school would be much more valuable than dragging kids out of bed, making them sit at a desk, trying to pound through the scriptures.

And That’s Basically It

I don’t think our youth program really needs to be complicated. As our society has become more complicated, I see that our church is simplifying. I think that’s good. Let soccer leagues provide soccer. Let school provide school. Let music teachers teach music. The church should provide spiritual mentoring and training and that requires faith, some regular time, and a deep devotion to our young people.

So, I support the new church program, because it’s not really a program. Just get together and do stuff.

Keep Yourself Unspotted From the World

Annually, our church has what they call “Standards Night”. The leadership in the region, encompassing multiple congregations, invites the youth in the area together to have a discussion on navigating life’s difficulties while maintaining high standards of Christian living. The discussion mostly focuses on avoiding sexual related temptations, avoiding drugs and alcohol, and staying away from bad language and inappropriate material through the various media channels coming at us these days. Last Sunday, part of the discussion centered on a phrase that put me in a wrestle – “keeping ourselves unspotted from the world”.

Before I dive into that, let me say I have no idea how to teach teenagers spiritual lessons. I’m not doing a great job of it with my own children. I’m on my own individual spiritual journey, gaining insights, learning lessons, but I’ve had decades now of wrestle, starting at a young age. My life resides in a completely different context than them – born as I was into childhood poverty, raised by an autistic mother in a crumbling house without air conditioning in the Yuma desert. They have no idea what I went through, why I am where I am, why I’m concerned with what I’m concerned with, how I came to the insights I have. It’s really difficult communicating any of this to them. They are on their own journey and need to learn their own lessons on their own mostly from scratch.

Their context is just different. They are overwhelmed with a school system that is far more demanding than mine, with parents desperate they receive opportunities that alluded me. They have advantages I didn’t have, but disadvantages as well. I leaned hard on God in my difficulties. A difficult childhood deepened my faith, loyalty and devotion to the church who nurtured it.

My children’s paths are different. Difficult in many ways, but not obvious in ways that will lead them into the same type of spiritual conviction mine did. I’m not sure they will continue down the religious path they were born into. Will they find another path? Will they do what so many of their peers will likely do and opt out of religion altogether? This choice will  be theirs. I want them to have a spiritual life. I have no idea how all of this will turn out.

Given all of that, I understand the point of Standards Night and I understand the need for the church to distill the gospel down in ways that young minds can hold onto as they navigate a complex world. And I desperately depend on the church to provide a structure of spirituality fine-tuned for young minds. There’s institutional wisdom in the church far better than my own. I depend on it.

This post is not meant to criticize or push against the messages contained at standards night, just an opportunity to dig into one idea that came up. Just what does it mean to be “unspotted from the world”. Doing a search of the scriptures I found just two references to this phrase:

James 1: 27

Pure areligion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To bvisit the cfatherless and dwidows in their eafflictionand to keep himself funspotted from gthe hworld.

Doctrine and Covenants 59:9

And that thou mayest more fully keep thyself aunspotted from the world, thou shalt go to the house of bprayer and offer up thy csacraments upon my dholy day;

There’s not a lot of specificity in either verse, but I do like the context. First in James, pure religion requires us to take on the burdens of the most vulnerable – the fatherless, the widows, those in affliction, the poor, the sick, the dying, those in prison, really all of us because we are all vulnerable and in affliction. Is there some connection between orienting our lives in service for others and remaining unspotted from the world?

There must be.

We need to avoid habits and behaviors that puts us in an inward, selfish orientation. In my church, we often conflate being spotted with sexual sin. In this view, we become spotted if we look at pornography, or engage in heavy make-out sessions with someone we just met, etc. We clean ourselves from these spots as we confess and forsake our sexual mistakes. There’s something to this. Sexual desire can be handled selfishly but it can also be an essential expression of deep intimate love with a committed partner.

But I’m wondering if an over-emphasis on avoiding sexual sin (or drug use or alcohol or whatever) can be counterproductive as well, in all the same ways an over-emphasis on following God’s laws led the New Testament Jews astray. Being too devoted to our own personal righteousness feels like spots to me. It makes us self-obsessed and inward focused, keeping us from the pure religion James describes.

Doctrine Covenants 59:9 adds another wrinkle. To remain unspotted we need to “go to the house of prayer and offer up sacraments”. There’s something sanctifying in regular ritual. Attending our church meetings with an open heart and a willing mind, united in humble prayer with others nearby, committing ourselves to each other in holy, sacred sacrament.

We need to come to prayer each Sunday and then to commit ourselves to take on the afflictions of others through the week, avoiding distractions and addictions that keep us in our heads.

Perhaps we find cleanliness in pure, selfless connection. We become spotted in isolation or as we use others for our own self interests.

I think this is a message I can communicate to my children. Spirituality comes through pure religion, selfless service, sacred communion in rituals, regular meditative prayer. None of this is easy. It’s a journey. Perhaps, we are born spotted and we spend a lifetime learning how to free ourselves of these selfish impulses so that we can finally live within the pure religion James describes.

Sunday School Lesson: 1 Corinthians 1-13

1 Corinthians 13:

1 Corinthians chapter 13 reads like poetry. This small nugget of a chapters is the most beautiful, provocative chapters in the entire cannon.

First of all, in the opening three verses, Paul becomes more and more provocative. Even I am the most eloquent, even if I have the tongue of an angel, it means nothing if I’m not filled with love. Makes sense. There are a lot of smooth talkers out there.

He goes further in verse two. Say I’m filled with the gift of prophecy and I have all knowledge and understand all mysteries. Yeah, nothing if I’m not full of love. But wait, even if I have all faith and all power, so much so that I can command the mountains to move. Nada, without love, it’s meaningless. Verse three ups the stakes still further. Say, I give up everything, everything I have to the poor. Say, even if I give my body to be burned. Still… meaningless without love.

There is literally nothing I can do that matters. No commandment I can keep, no sacrifice I can make, no gift I can bestow, no talent I can acquire that can make up for the lack of love. Love has to be at the root of all we do. Love is at the heart of religion if it’s to mean anything at all.

What type of love is Paul describing here, then? He breaks it down, in rapid succession:

Love suffers long, we are patient with ourselves, with others, with the world that is often exasperating.

Love is kind. With love, we have no envy, we celebrate and appreciate the gifts and accomplishments of others.

With love, we don’t elevate ourselves over others. Love operates within proper context (is not unseemly), love recognizes it’s not about us. We aren’t easily triggered by others when we operate within a loving context. We don’t think ill of another. We rejoice in truth. We believe, we hope, we endure.

Paul concludes this chapter the way he begins. We just cannot know everything. We know so little. We are fools. We see through the glass darkly. Prophecies fail, our words eventually cease, we’ll never know enough. But no matter, we can always love, no matter where we find ourselves, in our limitations, we can always love, the greatest of all.

1 Corinthians 12:

Chapter 12 is almost as important as 13, almost as provocative. Paul makes the case that we need each other. We can find unity in diversity. We all have different spiritual gifts, but they all come from the same spirit. Some of us doubt, some of us wrestle, some of us are wise, some of us are good with words, some of us have a believing heart, but we’re all essential in the body of Christ.

“The body is not one member, but many.”

Paul makes this point even clearer, those members of our congregation who are the most marginal, our weakest members, we elevate and honor them above all. “And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness.”

1 Corinthians 1-11:

Paul is writing this letter from Ephesus during his third mission. He’s received word that the church community he created during his earlier missions are running into trouble. Paul spent a long time in Corinth.

In this letter, he addresses specific problems, answers specific questions. Apparently Corinth was rife with divisions. People got caught up in elevating certain leaders over others – some factions for Paul, others for Apollos, some for Peter. There were the long running concerns about circumcision. Many converts struggled with idolatry. One of the chapters focused on sexual concerns. Paul wrote about marriage. Some of these chapters sit well within the context of the time.

But I love the bits about the wisdom of the world, that it is foolish. We are all children struggling to drink milk. We need to be one and united in our differences. I love Paul’s descriptions of the way apostles interact. With Jews, Paul is a Jew. With the weak, he’s weak, with the Greek, he’s Greek, and so on. So much of what we obsess with doesn’t matter. We have our idiosyncrasies. We come to church in our own context. Some of us are democrats, others republicans. Some are more educated, others less so.

But we all come, trying to develop agape, God’s love, universal, unconditional, often unrequited. We all come, in unity, as fools, limited, in weakness, but with a desire to serve and learn with each other.

This is the gospel of Christ.